Accounting principles

Amounts stated in millions of SEK (SEK M) unless specified otherwise.

BE Group AB (publ), company registration number 556578-4724, is a Swedish limited liability company. The registered office is in Malmö, Sweden.

Consolidated accounting principles

Compliance with legislation and standards

The consolidated accounts have been prepared in accordance with the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) published by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the interpretations issued by the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC) as approved by the Commission of the European Communities for application in the European Union. The Group also applies the Swedish Financial Reporting Board’s recommendation RFR 1 Supplementary accounting rules for groups.

The Parent Company applies the same accounting principles as the Group except in the cases stated in the section “Parent Company accounting principles.”

Significant accounting principles applied

Other than the exceptions explained in detail, the accounting principles set out below have been applied consistently to all periods presented in BE Group’s financial statements. The accounting principles applied in the consolidated accounts have also been applied consistently by the individual companies within the Group.

Changes in accounting principles

Changes to accounting principles necessitated by new or amended IFRS-rules

Amendments to IFRS applicable effective from January 1, 2017 have had no material effect on the consolidated accounts.

New IFRS-rules that have not yet begun to be applied

A number of new standards and interpretations will not enter into effect until future financial years and have not been applied in advance in the preparation of these financial statements. These new standards and interpretations are expected to affect the consolidated financial statements in the following manner:

IFRS 9 – Financial Instruments

IFRS 9 implies changes in how financial assets are classified and measured. An impairment model is introduced that is based on anticipated credit losses instead of occurred losses and changes in principles for hedge accounting for the purpose, among other things, of simplifying and increasing agreement with the company’s internal risk management strategies. The standard replaces IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and measurement.

Classification of financial assets and liabilities

Financial assets

The Group’s assessment is that the new categories of financial assets introduced with IFRS 9 will not have any material impact on the reporting of accounts receivable, loans receivable, investments in securities and shares managed on a fair value basis. As at December 31, 2017, there were no financial assets held for long-term purposes. According to IFRS 9, these assets are qualified in the category fair value through other comprehensive income. The consequence of this is that all restatements are recognized in other comprehensive income, no impairment losses are recognized in the result and no restatements are reclassified to the result at divestment.

Impairment of financial assets and contract assets

IFRS 9 replaces the “incurred loss model” with an “expected credit loss model”. The new impairment model shall be applied on financial assets valued at amortised cost or at fair value through other comprehensive income besides investments in equity instruments (shares and participations) and contract assets.

According to IFRS 9, loss reservations are made according to one of the following:
– expected to occur within 12 months: booked for loss events that can be expected to occur within 12 months.
– expected to occur during the asset’s entire lifetime: booked for loss events that can be expected to occur during the asset’s entire lifetime.

Loss risk reservation for the asset’s entire lifetime is made if the credit risk for the financial asset on the closing date increased significantly since the initial recognition and a loss risk reservation within 12 months is made if this is not the case. However, a loss risk reservation is always made for the assets entire lifetime for accounts receivable and contract assets without significant financing components. The Group has gone though the valuation of its assets and assesses that no further reservation need is required.

Hedge accounting

In the transition to IFRS 9, the Group can choose between continuing to apply the rules for hedge accounting according to IAS 39 or applying the hedging rules as per IFRS 9. The Group has chosen to retain its hedge accounting as per IAS 39. For further information, also see under the section Hedge accounting on page 46.

IFRS 15 – Revenue from Contracts with Customers

IFRS 15 is a comprehensive standard for deciding how much revenue shall be recognized and when these revenues are to be recognized. It replaces IAS 18 Revenues, IAS 11 Construction Contracts and IFRIC 13 Customer Loyalty Programmes.

Sales of goods

In sales of goods, the revenue is currently reported when the goods have been delivered to the customer, which is the time when the customer accepts the goods and risks and benefits are transferred to the customer. The revenue is recognized at this time given that income and expenses can be reliably calculated, it is probable that the financial benefits associated with the transaction will accrue to the company and that no commitment linked to the goods is kept.

According to IFRS 15, the revenue is recognized when the customer gains control over the goods. For some special orders of goods, the customer gains control already in connection with the production of the goods. Revenues from these contracts are recognized in pace with the goods being made.

The Group’s assessment indicates that this means that the revenues and some costs attributable to them will be recognized over time, i.e. before the goods are delivered to the customer, which is in accordance with how these kinds of deliveries were handled before which is why no change arises in the accounting principles in this respect.

For some contracts where the customer has the right to return the goods, the revenue is currently recognized when a reasonable estimate of the returns can be made, given that other criteria for recognizing a revenue are met. Unless a reasonable estimate can be made, the revenue is recognized only when the period for returning the goods expires or a reasonable estimate can be made.

Under IFRS15, revenue is recognized for these contracts to the extent that it is likely that a reversal of the accumulated revenues need not be done. As a result of this, for the contracts where the Group cannot make a reasonable estimate of the returns, the revenues are expected to be recognized earlier compared with the period for returning expiring or a reasonable estimate being able to be made.

The Group does not assess that this changed principle will have any material impact on the consolidated financial statements.


The Group plans to apply the introduction of IFRS 15 retrospectively with the combined effect of the transfer recognized on the first date of application, i.e. January 1, 2018. The effect on the opening balance is not deemed to be material.

IFRS 16 Leases

IFRS Leases replaces existing IFRS 16 related to recognition of leases, such as IAS 17 Leases and IFRIC 4 Determining whether an arrangement contains a lease. The Group plans to apply the standard from January 1, 2019.

IFRS 16 mainly affects lessees and the central effect is that all leases that are today recognized as operating leases shall be recognized in a way that is similar to the current recognition of finance leases. This means that even for operating leases, assets and liabilities must be recognized, with associated recognition of costs for depreciation and interest – in contrast to today when no recognition is made of lease assets and related liabilities, and when the leasing fees are allocated to periods straight-line as a leasing cost. Except for recognition of the right of use asset and leasing liability for leases of minor value and contracts of a duration of no more than 12 months.

The Group has completed the initial assessment of the potential effects on its financial statements, but has not yet concluded the more detailed analysis. The final effect of the introduction of IFRS 16 on the financial statements will depend on future financial circumstances, including the Group’s loan interest at January 1, 2019, the composition of the Group’s leasing portfolio at that time, the Group’s latest assessment regarding whether or not they want to use any options to extend leases and the extent to which the Group chooses to use relief rules and exceptions to recognize in the balance sheet/statement of financial position.

The most significant effect identified so far is that the Group will need to recognize new assets and liabilities for its operating leases for warehouse and factory facilities. As at December 31, 2017, the Group’s future minimum lease payments and non-cancellable operating leases amount to SEK 716 M on an undiscounted basis. No material effect is expected for the Group’s finance leases.

Determining whether an arrangement contains a lease

The Group plans to apply the relief rule to “inherit” the earlier definition of leasing at the transition. This means that it will apply IFRS 16 on all contracts entered into before January 1, 2019 and identified as leases under IAS 17 and IFRIC 4.

As a lessee, the Group can choose to apply the standard either:
– retroactively; or
– with a modified retroactive approach

The selected method is applied to all leases.

The Group plans to apply the modified retroactive approach, which means that the accumulated effect of the transition to IFRS 16 will be recognized in the retained earnings in the opening balance at January 1, 2019. No comparative figures will be restated.

When the modified retroactive approach is applied to leases previously classified as operating leases, the lessee can choose lease by lease if it want to apply a number of relief rules in the transition. The Group is evaluating the potential effects of using these rules.

None of the other IFRS or IFRIC interpretations that have not yet entered into effect are expected to have any material impact on the Group.

There are no plans to apply any new standards or amendments in advance.

Conditions applied to Parent Company and consolidated financial statements

Functional currency and reporting currency

The functional currency of the Parent Company is SEK and this is also the reporting currency of the Parent Company and the Group. Consequently, the financial accounts are presented in SEK. All amounts are rounded off to the nearest million unless otherwise stated.

Valuation principles

Assets and liabilities are reported at historical cost with the exception of certain financial assets and liabilities, which are reported at fair value. Financial assets and liabilities recognized at fair value consist of derivative instruments. Fixed assets and disposal groups held for sale are reported at their carrying amount or fair value less sales expenses, whichever is lowest.

Assessments and estimates

Preparation of the financial statements in accordance with IFRS requires management making assessments, estimations and assumptions that affect the application of the accounting principles and the figures reported for assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses. The estimates and assumptions are based on historical experience and other factors that seem reasonable under current conditions. The results of these estimates and assumptions are then used to assess the carrying amount of assets and liabilities not otherwise evident from other sources. The actual outcome may deviate from these estimations and assessments. The estimations and assessments are reviewed regularly. Changes in estimations are reported in the period in which they are made if they only affect that period, or in the period in which they are made and future periods if they affect both the period concerned and future periods.

Management’s assessments in connection with application of IFRS that have significant effect on the financial statements and estimates that may cause material adjustments to the financial statements of subsequent years are described in greater detail below in Note 33, Significant estimates and assessments.

Basis for consolidation


The Parent Company BE Group AB (publ) directly or indirectly owns all shares and votes in its subsidiaries and therefore has a controlling influence over these.

In the consolidated accounts, subsidiaries are reported in accordance with the acquisition method. The method entails acquisitions of subsidiaries being viewed as transactions through which the Group indirectly acquires the subsidiary’s assets and assumes its liabilities and contingent liabilities. Consolidated cost is determined by means of an acquisition analysis in connection with the transaction. The acquisition analysis determines, in part, the cost of the holdings or operations and, in part, the fair value of the identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities assumed on the date of acquisition. Possible transaction fees due to the acquisition of a subsidiary are reported directly in the profit/loss for the period, except for transaction fees that arose prior to January 1, 2010. The latter has been included in the cost. Subsidiaries’ financial accounts are included in the consolidated accounts from the point of acquisition and until the Group no longer has a controlling influence.

Payment in connection with the acquisitions does not include payments settling prior business transactions. Settlements of this type are made against profit/loss for the period. The classification and accounting of business acquisitions that took place before January 1, 2004 has not been reassessed in accordance with IFRS 3 in connection with the determination of the consolidated opening balance sheet on January 1, 2004 in accordance with IFRS.

Joint venture

For purposes of accounting, joint ventures are companies for which the Group has joint control over operational and financial management through a contractual arrangement with one or more parties. Interests in joint ventures are consolidated using the equity method of accounting. The equity method entails the value of holdings in joint ventures reported in the consolidated accounts being equivalent to the Group’s share of the joint ventures’ shareholders’ equity, as well as consolidated goodwill and any other consolidated surplus or deficit. In consolidated profit/loss for the period, “Participations in earnings of joint venture” is reported as the Group’s share of a company’s earnings adjusted for any impairment, amortization or reversals of acquired surpluses or deficits. These shares in earnings less any dividends received from joint ventures comprise the main change in the carrying amount of interests in joint ventures. Any discrepancy at the point of acquisition between the cost of the holding and the owning company’s share of the identifiable assets and liabilities of the joint venture is reported in accordance with the same principles that apply for acquisitions of subsidiaries.

Transactions eliminated on consolidation

Intra-group receivables and liabilities, income and expenses and unrealized gains or losses arising from intra-group transactions between Group companies are eliminated in full when preparing the consolidated accounts. Unrealized gains and losses arising from transactions with joint ventures are eliminated to a degree corresponding to the Group’s ownership of those companies, however, unrealized losses are eliminated only to the extent that there is no indication that any impairment should be recognized.

Foreign currency

Transactions in foreign currencies

Transactions in foreign currencies are translated into the functional currency corresponding to the exchange rate in force on the trans-action date. The functional currency is the currency of the primary economic environment in which the Group’s companies carry out their business. Monetary assets and liabilities in foreign currencies are translated at the exchange rate in effect on the balance sheet date. Exchange differences arising from translation are recognized against profit/loss for the period. Non-monetary assets and liabilities recognized at their historical costs are translated at the exchange rate applicable at the time of the transaction. Exchange differences referring to operating assets and liabilities are recognized in the operating result, while exchange rate movements referring to financial assets and liabilities are recognized in net financial income.

Foreign businesses’ financial statements

Assets and liabilities in foreign operations, including goodwill and other Group surplus and deficit values, are translated from the foreign operations’ functional currency to the Group’s reporting currency. Translation is applied at the exchange rate in effect on the balance sheet date. Income and expenses in a foreign operation are translated at an average exchange rate approximating the currency exchange rates applicable on the relevant transaction dates. Translation differences arising in connection with the translation of a foreign net investment and accompanying effects of hedges of net investments are recognized under other comprehensive income and are accumulated in an equity component entitled separate translation reserve. Non-current internal loans are considered to form part of the net investment in the foreign operation. On the sale of a foreign operation, the accumulated translation differences attributable to the operation are recognized, less any currency hedging against profit/loss for the period.


Non-current assets and liabilities essentially consist of amounts that are expected to be recovered or paid later than 12 months after the balance sheet date. Current assets and current liabilities essentially consist of amounts that are expected to be recovered or paid within 12 months of the balance sheet date.

Intangible assets


Consolidated goodwill consists of acquired goodwill and goodwill arising in connection with investments in subsidiaries. Goodwill represents the difference between the cost of the business combination and the fair value of acquired assets, assumed liabilities and contingent liabilities. After the acquisition, goodwill is reported at cost less any impairment losses. Goodwill is distributed to cash generating units and is tested at least once annually to determine possible impairment needs; see Note 13 Goodwill.

Other intangible assets

Customer relations consist of acquired assets that have been identified in the acquisition analysis in connection with the acquisition of shares in subsidiaries. At the time of acquisition, customer relations are valued at fair value, which is considered to be equivalent to the cost. After the acquisition, customer relations are recognized at cost less accumulated amortization and impairment losses.

Computer programs and licenses are reported at cost less accumulated amortization and impairment. Costs incurred for internally generated goodwill and internally generated brands are recognized against profit/loss for the period when the cost is incurred. Additional expenditures for capitalized intangible assets are recognized as assets on the Balance Sheet only when they increase the future economic benefit associated with the specific asset. All other expenditures are expensed as they are incurred.

Amortization principles for customer relations and other intangible assets

Amortization is recognized in profit/loss for the period on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life of the asset. Intangible assets which can be amortized are amortized from the date on which they are available for use. The useful lives of assets are reassessed on an ongoing basis, although at least once per year.

The estimated useful lives are:

 Useful life
Group Parent Company
Licenses 3–10 years 3–10 years
Software 3–10 years 3–10 years
Customer relationships 6–10 years
Other intangible assets 3–10 years

Tangible assets

Tangible assets are recognized in the Group at cost less accumulated depreciation and any impairment. The cost includes the purchase price plus expenses directly attributable to the asset in order to put it in place and make it appropriate for use in accordance with the purpose of the acquisition. Examples of directly related expenses included in the cost of an asset are expenses for shipping and handling, installation, legal title, consultant services and legal services.

Additional expenditures are only added to the cost if it is probable that the future economic benefits associated with the asset will flow to the Company and the cost can be measured reliably. All other subsequent expenses are expensed in the period they arise.

Depreciation principles for tangible assets

Depreciation is recognized on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life of the asset. Land is not depreciated. The useful lives and residual values of assets on an annual basis at the least.

Useful life
Group Parent Company
Buildings 15–50 years
Plant and machinery 3–15 years
Equipment, tools, fixtures and fittings 3–10 years 3–10 years

Impairment of tangible and intangible assets as well as holdings in a joint venture

IAS 36 is applied to identify impairments for assets other than financial instruments reported according to IAS 39, deferred tax assets reported according to IAS 12 and inventories reported according to IAS 2. Assets held for sale and disposal groups are tested in accordance with IFRS 5. The carrying amounts for the exempted assets are measured according to the respective standards.

If there is any indication of impairment, the asset’s recoverable amount is estimated. The asset’s recoverable amount is the highest of the value in use and fair value minus selling expenses. In measuring value in use, future cash flows are discounted at the pre-tax rate that shall reflect current market assessments of risk-free interest and the risks specific to the asset. In the event that the asset’s carrying amount exceeds the recoverable amount, the carrying amount is impaired down to the recoverable amount. Impairments are charged against profit/loss for the period.

Impairment testing of goodwill is carried out annually, regardless of whether an indication of an impairment requirement exists or not. Impairment losses on assets within the scope of IAS 36 are reversed if there is both indication that the impairment no longer exists and there has been a change in the assumptions on which the recoverable amount was measured. However, impairments of goodwill are not reversed. A reversal is only made to the extent that the asset’s carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been reported if no impairment had taken place.


Inventories are measured at the lower of cost and net sales value. The cost of inventories includes expenses incurred to acquire inventory assets and transport them to their current site and condition. The cost figure is based on weighted average prices. The cost of manufactured goods and work in progress includes a reasonable share of indirect expenses based on normal capacity. Net sales value is the estimated selling price in current operations less the estimated expenses to make the asset ready for sale and to effect a sale. Net sale value is estimated based on estimates of the current market price.


Provisions differ from other liabilities in the uncertainty that prevails regarding the time of payment or the amount required to settle the obligation. Provisions are recorded in the Balance Sheet when the Group has an existing legal or informal obligation as a result of an event occurring and when it is likely that an outflow of financial resources will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate of the amount can be made. Provisions are made in the amount corresponding to the best estimate of that required to settle present obligations on the balance sheet date. If the payment date has a significant effect, provisions are calculated through discounting of the expected future cash flow at a pre-tax interest rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and, where applicable, the risks associated with the liability.

Financial instruments

Financial instruments that are reported in the balance sheet include receivables, liquid funds and accounts payable.

A financial asset or financial liability is recognized in the Balance Sheet when the Company becomes party to the instrument’s contractual terms. Receivables are recognized in the Balance Sheet once the invoice has been sent, which normally occurs in connection with delivery of the Group’s goods and services and the associated transfer of risk. Liabilities are recognized once the counter party has completed its task and there is a contractual obligation to pay, even though an invoice may not yet have been received. A financial asset or part thereof is derecognized when the contractual rights are realized, mature or are no longer under the Company’s control. The same also applies for parts of a financial asset. A financial liability or part thereof is derecognized in the balance sheet when contractual obligations are met or otherwise extinguished. The same applies for part of a financial liability. Purchases and sales of financial assets are recognized using trade date accounting. The trade date is the date the Company enters into a contractual obligation to buy or sell the asset. A financial asset and a financial liability are offset and the net amount recognized in the Balance Sheet only when the Company has a legally enforceable right to set off the amounts and intends either to settle on a net basis or to realize the asset and settle the liability simultaneously. At initial recognition, financial instruments are classified based on the purpose for which the instrument was acquired, which affects subsequent measurement. The measurement categories BE Group uses are as follows.

Valuation category, loans and accounts receivable

Loans and receivables are non-derivative financial assets with determined or determinable payments that are not quoted in an active market. These assets are measured at amortized cost in accordance with the effective interest method. Accrued historical cost is determined from the effective interest rate that is calculated at the date of acquisition.

Trade receivables are recognized at the amounts expected to be recovered, that is, after deductions for doubtful receivables. Trade receivables have a short expected maturity and are accordingly measured at nominal value and not discounted.

Liquid assets include cash and cash equivalents as well as immediately available balances with banks and similar institutions as well as short-term liquid placements with maturity of less than three months, counted from the acquisition date, and that are exposed to only insignificant risk of fluctuations in value.

Valuation category financial assets available for sale

This category covers financial assets not classified in any other category or financial assets designated on initial recognition as available for sale. In accordance with the main principle, assets belonging to this category are continuously recognized at fair value with changes in value recognized in other comprehensive income. When the assets are derecognized from the Balance Sheet, the cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in equity is transferred to profit/loss for the period. However, the Other securities held as that BE Group reports in this valuation category have been valued at cost since their type, nature and insubstantial amounts make it impractical in terms of benefit to calculate their fair value.

The valuation category, Financial liabilities measured at fair value in profit/loss for the period

This category consists of financial assets held for trading, that is, derivatives with negative fair value. The fair value of listed financial instruments corresponds to their listed market price on the balance sheet date. The fair value of financial liabilities for which there is no active market is determined using discounted cash flow analysis. Fair value changes are recognized in profit/loss for the period.

The valuation category, financial liabilities, measured at the accrued cost

Other financial liabilities are measured at amortized cost in accordance with the effective interest method. They are initially recognized at the obtained amount with deductions for transactions expenses. Loans and other financial liabilities, such as account payables, are included in this category. Accounts payables have a short expected maturity and are accordingly measured at nominal value and not discounted.

Impairment of financial assets

At each balance sheet date, the Company assesses whether there is objective evidence that a financial asset or group of assets needs to be impaired. The recoverable amount is calculated as the current value of future cash flows discounted by the effective interest that applied when the asset was initially recognized. Impairment is recognized as an expense in profit/loss for the period. Impairment is reversed if the previous reason for impairment no longer exists and the asset is expected to be recovered in its entirety.

Hedge accounting

In order to fulfill the requirements on hedge accounting in accordance with IAS 39, there must be a clear link to the hedged item. Moreover, the hedging must effectively protect the hedged item, the hedging documentation must be drawn up and the effectiveness must be quantifiable.

Investments in foreign subsidiaries (net assets including goodwill) have been hedged for currency risk to a certain extent through borrowing in the same currency as the investments. At the close of the period, these currency loans are entered at the rate applicable on the balance sheet date and the effective portion of the period’s exchange rate differences are recognized in other comprehensive income. The accumulated changes are classified as translation reserve in equity. When hedging is ineffective, the ineffective portion is recognized in profit/loss for the period.


A warranty provision is recognized when an agreement has been made including stipulations of future commitments that are deemed likely to materialize.

A warranty provision may also be recognized when the underlying products or services are sold. The provision is based on historical data concerning warranties and consideration of possible outcomes in relation to the probabilities associated with the outcomes. However, such warranty commitments do not represent a significant item in the Group’s financial statements.

Onerous contracts

A provision for an onerous contract is recognized when anticipated benefits that the Group expects to receive from a contract are less than the unavoidable expenses to fulfill the obligations as set out in the contract.


Income from the sale of goods is reported in the period’s profit/loss when the goods are delivered and the inherent risk has been transferred to the customer. In normal cases, the following conditions are considered to be fulfilled; the company has transferred to the buyer the significant risks and rewards of ownership; the Company retains neither continuing managerial involvement nor effective control over the goods sold; the amount of revenue can be measured reliably; it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the Company; and the expenses incurred or to be incurred in respect of the transaction can be measured in a reliable way.

The Company measures revenue at the fair value of consideration received or receivable. Accordingly, the Company measures revenue at nominal value (invoice amount) if the Company receives consideration in cash or cash equivalents upon delivery on customary credit terms. Discounts provided are deducted.

Income from service assignments is recognized in profit/loss for the period based on the degree of completion on the balance sheet date. The degree of completion is determined on the basis of the expenses hitherto incurred in relation to the total calculated expenses for the assignment.

Employee benefits

Short-term employee benefits

Short-term employee benefits such as wages and salaries, including bonuses, paid leave, sick leave and social security benefits are recognized in the period in which the employee has performed services in exchange for the benefit.


The Group’s pension agreements are mainly defined contribution plans. The defined benefit plan for retirement pensions and survivors’ pensions for white collar employees in Sweden are secured through an insurance policy provided by Alecta. According to a statement (UFR 3) from the Swedish Financial Reporting Board, this is a multiple-employer defined benefit plan. The Company has not had access to information that would permit recognition of the plan as a defined benefit which is why the pension plan in accordance with ITP is secured through insurance with Alecta such as a defined contribution plan.

Under a defined contribution plan, the enterprise pays fixed contributions into a fund (a separate legal entity) and has no further legal or constructive obligation to make further payments. The pension expense to be recognized in the period is the contribution payable in exchange for service rendered by employees during the period.

Termination benefits

When the Company terminates employment, benefits to the employee are recognized as an ongoing expense for as long as the employee performs work for the Company. When the employee is immediately discharged from duty, the entire benefit amount is immediately recognized as an expense.

Provisions are recognized in connection with terminations only if the Company is demonstrably obligated to terminate employment prior to the normal date or when compensation is offered to encourage voluntary departure and it is likely that the offer will be accepted and that the number of employees who will accept the offer can be reliably estimated.

Financial income and expenses

Financial income and expenses consist of interest income on bank balances, receivables and fixed income securities, interest expense on loans, exchange differences and allocated transaction expenses for raised loans.

Transaction expenses for raised loans and credits are accrued over the life of the loans and credits by applying the effective interest method.


Income taxes are recognized in profit/loss for the period except where an underlying transaction is recognized directly in other comprehensive income, whereupon the related tax effect is likewise recognized in other comprehensive income. Current tax is tax to be paid or refunded in the current year, which includes adjustment of current tax attributable to previous periods. Deferred tax assets are measured using the balance sheet method based on temporary differences between the carrying amount of an asset or liability and its tax value on assets and liabilities. Deferred tax assets are measured based on how temporary differences are expected to even out and applying the tax rates and regulations that have been enacted or announced at the balance sheet date.

Temporary differences are not taken into consideration for consolidated goodwill.

Deferred tax assets pertaining to deductible temporary differences and loss carryforwards are recognized only if it is considered probable they will result in lower tax payments in the future.


Leases are classified in the consolidated accounts as financial or operating leases. BE Group is the lessee in all leases.

Operating leasing agreements

Leases of assets where the lessor retains the financial risks and rewards normally associated with ownership of the asset are classified as operating leases. Lease payments related to operating leases are recognized as an expense in the Income Statement on a straight line basis over the lease term. Incentives received in connection with the signing of a new agreement are recognized in profit/loss for the period on a straight line basis over the lease term. Variable payments are recognized as an expense in the periods in which they arise.

Financial leasing agreements

Leases of assets where the financial risks and rewards normally associated with ownership of the asset are transferred to BE Group are classified as finance leases. The lease asset is recognized as a tangible asset, with the same depreciation rates applied as for tangible assets, while the future obligation to pay lease fees to the lessor is recognized as a liability in the Balance Sheet. Leased assets are depreciated according to the same principles that apply to other assets of the same type. Future lease obligations are apportioned between non-current and current liabilities. Minimum lease payments are apportioned between the finance charge and amortization of the outstanding liability. The interest expense is allocated over the leasing period so that every reporting period is charged with an amount corresponding to a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Variable payments are recognized as an expense in the periods in which they arise.

Segment reporting

An operating segment is a component of the Group that conducts business operations from which it can derive revenues and incur expenses, including intra-group transactions and whose operating result is reviewed regularly by the Group’s senior executives as a basis for the allocation of resources to the segment and the assessment of its results. Independent financial information shall also be available for components of the Group defined as segments. BE Group has defined the concept of “senior executives” as Group Management.

The Group’s primary basis for identifying segments is geographical areas. The Internal management is based primarily on reporting and follow-up of returns from the Group’s geographical areas. The geographical areas are grouped by country or group of countries, based on similarities with regard to risks and returns. For additional information on operating segments, please see Note 1 Operating segments.

Earnings per share

The calculation of earnings per share is based on the profit for the period within the Group which is attributable to the Parent Company’s shareholders and on the weighted average number of outstanding shares during the year. In calculating earnings per share before and after dilution, the average number of shares is adjusted to take into consideration the effects of the Share Savings program.

Cash Flow Statement

The Cash Flow Statement is prepared using the indirect method. Reported cash flow covers only transactions that result in incoming and outgoing payments.

Parent Company accounting principles

The Parent Company has prepared its Annual Report in accordance with the annual accounts act (1995:1554) and the Swedish Financial Reporting Board’s recommendation RFR 2 Accounting for legal entities (Sept. 2012). Published statements by the Swedish Financial Reporting Board for listed companies are also applied. RFR 2 means that the Parent Company, in the annual report for the legal entity, must apply all EU-approved IFRS and statements as far as this is possible within the framework of the Swedish law on the safeguarding of pension commitments and taking the connection into account between reporting and taxation. The recommendation specifies exemptions and additions to IFRS that shall be made.

Classification and presentation

The Parent Company’s Income Statement and Balance Sheet are prepared in accordance with the model detailed in the Annual Accounts Act, while the report on comprehensive profit/loss, Statement of Changes in Equity and the Statement of Cash Flows are based on IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements and IAS 7 Statement of Cash Flows respectively. The differences in the Income Statement and Balance Sheet of the Parent Company compared with the consolidated accounts mainly involve the reporting of financial revenues and expenses, assets and equity.

Participations in subsidiaries

Participations in subsidiaries are reported in the Parent Company in accordance with the cost method. This means that transaction expenses are included in the carrying amount of holdings in subsidiaries. In the consolidated accounts, transaction expenses are charged directly against profit/loss when they are incurred. Anticipated dividends from subsidiaries are recognized when the Parent Company has the sole right to decide the amount of the distribution and the Parent Company has decided on the size of the distribution before the subsidiary published its financial statements. Dividends received from Group companies are recognized in their entirety as income in the Income Statement.

Shareholder contributions

Shareholders’ contributions paid are reported as an increase in shares and participations in Group companies, to the extent that impairment is not required. In the receiving Company, shareholder contributions are reported directly in equity.

Financial instruments

In accordance with the rules in the Swedish Financial Reporting Board’s recommendation RFR 2 and the connection between accounting and taxation, the rules on financial instruments and hedge accounting in IAS 39 are not applied in the Parent Company as a legal entity. In the future, IAS 39 will continue to be applied only to the consolidated accounts. Financial assets in the Parent Company are measured at cost less impairment losses, if any and current financial assets are measured at the lower of cost and fair value. Liabilities that do not constitute derivative liabilities are measured at the accrued cost. Possible derivative assets are measured in accordance with the lower of cost and fair value, while contingent derivative liabilities are measured according to the highest value principle.


Untaxed reserves in the Parent Company are recognized including deferred tax liability. Untaxed reserves are apportioned in the consolidated accounts between deferred tax liability and equity.


In the Parent Company, all leases are recognized as operating leases.

Financial guarantees

The Parent Company’s financial guarantee contracts consist of guarantees on behalf of subsidiaries. A financial guarantee contract is a contract that requires the issuer to make specified payments to reimburse the holder for a loss it incurs because a specified debtor fails to make payment as contractually agreed. The Parent Company applies RFR 2 p. 72, which is an easing of regulations compared to the rules in IAS 39 with regard to financial guarantee contracts issued on behalf of subsidiaries. The Parent Company recognizes financial guarantee contracts as provisions in the Balance Sheet when it has an obligation for which payment will probably be required to achieve settlement.

Group contributions in the Parent Company

Group contributions paid or received are reported as appropriations.

Financial liabilities

Financial liabilities primarily comprise liabilities to credit institutions. Liabilities to credit institutions are initially valued at amounts received, less any setup fees, and are then valued at the accrued acquisition value. Interest expenses are reported on a rolling basis in the Income Statement. Capitalised set-up fees are reported directly against the loan liability to the extent that the loan agreement’s underlying loan guarantee has been utilised, and are periodised in the Income Statement (under Other financial expenses) over the contractual term of the loan. If a loan agreement is terminated or otherwise ceases to obtain at a point in time prior to the end of the original contractual term, capitalised set-up fees are taken up as income. If a current agreement is renegotiated during the contractual term, any additional fees in connection with the renegotiation are periodised over the remaining contractual term of the loans.